`Osteo` means bone and `Porosis’ implies thinning or becoming porous. Osteoporosis, "porous bones", affects about half of all women over the age of 35 who will subsequently have a fracture of the hip, wrist, or vertebra (bone of the spine). Osteoporotic is responsible for considerable pain, decreased quality of life, disability and early death.

According to the World Health Organization, the prevalence of osteoporosis among U.S. white women past menopause is estimated to be 14% in those 50-59 years of age, 22% in those 60-69 years of age, 39% in those 70-79 years of age, and 70% in those 80 years of age and older. Up to 30% of patients suffering a hip fracture will require long-term nursing-home care. Elderly patients can develop pneumonia and blood clots in the leg veins that can travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism) due to prolonged bed rest after the hip fracture. Osteoporosis has even been linked with an increased risk of death. Some 20% of women with a hip fracture will die in the subsequent year as an indirect result of the fracture.

What is Bone?
Bone is a living part of our body and like other tissue it is in a constant state of remodelling. Cells called Osteoblasts form new bone while other cells called Osteoclasts, break down and clear out the old. It's a delicate but perfect balance - until we reach our mid-thirties, when bone loss begins to outpace bone building. Over time, the result is weaker, more fragile bones.

Elemental Information of Bones
-Calcium: Calcium-rich foods are an important part of a bone-healthy lifestyle that can not only reduce the risk of fractures as you get older, but may also protect against certain cancers. The body can absorb only about 500 mg of calcium at one time and so intake should be spread throughout the day. While yogurt can contribute to higher bone mineral density (BMD) – some of your favorite dairy products could cause the opposite effect such as dairy with higher levels of fat and sugar – heavy cream, ice cream, butter and some cheeses – even though delicious aren’t as nutritious and don’t contribute to overall bone health. It is claimed that vegetables and nuts are a better source of calcium and it is noteworthy to look at animals which get all of their calcium from grass and vegetable forage and have some of the largest and strongest bones.
-Without Vitamin D, our bodies cannot effectively absorb calcium, which is essential to good bone health.
-Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral in the body. It is found as phosphate ion and works together with calcium to aid in bone health. Increasing phosphorus levels in the diet is useful in healing diseases such as rickets and brittle bones.
-Foods high in Boron (a mineral that helps the body hold calcium) are beneficial for those affected by osteoporosis. Boron is found in apples, pears, grapes and other fruit, as well as in legumes, nuts and honey.
-The role of Potassium in bone health relates to the ability is to neutralize bone-depleting metabolic acids. It is also a marker associated with bone mineral density.
-Silica works with calcium to maintain strong bones.
-Glucosamine and Chondrotin are very important for bone and joint health.
-Vitamin K: The biological role of vitamin K2 is to help move calcium into the proper areas in your body, such as your bones and teeth. It also plays a role in removing calcium from areas where it shouldn't be, such as in your arteries and soft tissues. Protein called osteocalcin are essential in protecting bones from fractures, but that it can only be absorbed by bones through the action of vitamin K. Plus, people who consume the most vitamin K2 have 50 percent less arterial calcification and cardiovascular death than average. Vitamin K2, also called menaquinone, is made by the bacteria that line your gastrointestinal tract. Firmented foods such as natto, kefir, tempeh, miso, sauerkraut and cheeses such as Gouda and Brie are rich in this element. Alternatively, you may take a vitamin K2 supplement in liquid form.
-Manganese assists enzymes in producing compounds that contribute to bone formation. These protein-polysaccharide compounds, called proteoglycans, add to the structure of the bone matrix and are essential for maintaining strong, solid bones. Traces of manganese are largely found in pineapples, nuts, spinach, beans and whole wheat.
-GTF Chromium is important for proper calcium metabolism (GTF Chromium is a complex known as Glucose Tolerance Factor and is made by fermenting nutritional yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with chromium.)
-Lysine, an essential amino acid helps in the production of collagen, a protein that is the basic building block of bones, cartilage and tendons. Lysine aids the body in the absorption of calcium and reduces the loss of calcium in urine. Lysine at a dosage of 500 mg per day may increase calcium absorption and increase bone mass in people with osteoporosis. The richest source of lysine is protein-rich food, such as meat, poultry, Parmesan cheese, legumes, eggs and soybeans, particularly tofu, isolated soy protein and defatted soybean flour.
-Vitamin C is a key player in the formation of collagen, another important constituent of bone.
-Selenium: Selenoproteins are important compounds in bone metabolism. Dietary sources of selenium include Brazil nuts, beef, tuna, chicken breast, rice and walnuts.
-Calcitonin inhibits the cells that break down bone. Calcitonin is a hormone made by the thyroid gland.
-Hydroxyapatite, a crystalline substance within your body, comprises nearly 50 percent of your bone mineral.
-Inositol/IP6 modulates the behavior of bone-forming and bone-destroying cells to help prevent osteoporosis.
-Besides being an excellent pathogen destroyer, Colloidal Silver also helps bone, tissue and nerve regeneration.
-C. barmoetz compounds might be able to treat osteoporosis by reducing an over-abundance of osteoclasts, thereby normalizing bone marrow function.
-Ipriflavone has been shown to increase bone density and inhibit bone resorption.
-Strontium does more than improve BMD - it dramatically decreases fracture risk. The recommended dose is 680 mg of elemental strontium. It is important to take it at least two hours before or after eating or taking other supplements, especially calcium.
-Magnesium is essential in not just for good bone growth and density, but it is required to regulate most of the elements stated above within the body and is the mother of all. The body uses magnesium for calcium metabolism and the synthesis of vitamin D, both of which are essential for bone formation. The recommended daily minimums are 320 mg for women and 400 for men, but optimum daily amounts are more like 500 to 700 mg. Dietary sources include dark green leafy vegetables and nuts, but it is difficult to get enough magnesium through diet alone so supplementation is advised for most people. It is estimated that 8 out of 10 people do not get enough magnesium daily and that over 90% of the US population is magnesium deficient.

Lack of Exercise - It should also be noted that with unhealthy lifestyles, bone density can also start to deteriorate as early as in the late twenties. Anything that keeps a person off his feet for any amount of time can cause disuse osteoporosis, including illness necessitating bed rest, spinal cord injury, paralysis from stroke or fractures. Even conditioned astronauts or people who experience prolonged weightlessness can develop disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged immobility causes increased excretion of calcium in the urine and stool, which also contributes to development of disuse osteoporosis. To reduce the incidence of osteoporosis, it is important to build strong bones during childhood and adolescence to reach peak bone mass by the ages of 18 to 20. Men and women who have small frames and are extremely thin are more susceptible to conceive this disease.

Family history of osteoporosis and bone fractures - Though hereditary, information on how to improve your bone health will provide you major benefits, so keep reading.

Decreased Hormonal Levels
-Estrogen production decreases during menopause / Men are affected with low levels of male hormone testosterone.
-Long term stress and severe depression also contribute to this disease and do bring about hormonal changes. The mineral balance of our body is affected by our emotional well-being, blood sugar levels, mental stress, physical pain plus much more. Do everything you can to minimize (chronic) stress from your life. Studies show that depression exacerbates stress hormones, which lead to rapid bone loss. And anti depressants have shown to decrease bone density.
-The endocrine system (located throughout the body) secretes hormones into the blood and helps regulate body chemistry. If you want to prevent bone loss - do NOT stress your adrenals, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary and gonads.

Influence of Other Diseases
-A disease such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia can cause changes in a person`s estrogen level and lead to osteoporosis.
-Hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and Cushing’s syndrome can alter your metabolism.
-Diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis may also cause bone loss.
-Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia.
-Gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn’s disease and celiac disease. If celiac disease and gluten has damaged your digestive tract, these essential nutrients won’t do you any good. You can’t absorb them. Research at Washington University shows that people with osteoporosis (bone thinning) may be up to 22 times more likely to suffer from celiac (an autoimmune reaction to gluten) than people with normal bones.
-Liver and kidney disorders can also contribute to osteoporosis because good functioning of these organs is required to metabolize vitamin D into an active useable form for the body. Vitamin D is required to absorb calcium.

Prescription Drugs
-The use of several diuretics such as furosemide, are associated with altered calcium metabolism, raising concerns about the increased likelihood of diuretic-related osteoporosis.
-Bisphosphonate (also called diphosphonates) are a class of drugs that supposidly prevent the loss of bone mass but they actually disrupt normal bone remodeling by shutting down the osteoclasts - the cells that break down old bone to make new bone. When that happens, new bone is built on top of old bone. Yes, your bone density is higher, but the bone's not always structurally sound.The have also been linked to dangerous heart rhythm problems and risks of esophageal cancer. They cause esophageal irritation and ulceration, bone and muscle pain, and rare but serious eye inflammation.
-Intravenous Fosamax is linked with a horrendous condition called osteonecrosis of the jaw that results in deterioration and death of the jawbone. Fosamax also increases risk of atrial fibrillation by 86 percent, and a June 2008 study revealed that long-term use actually raises risk of stress fractures in the bones of the legs.
-The steroid hormones glucocorticoids (GCs) are used at high doses to treat inflammatory and immune disorders, however they prompt bone loss and can cause osteoporosis.
-Psyllium, sold under the brand name Metamucil, is a bulk-forming laxative used to treat constipation. Use psyllium cautiously if you have osteoporosis because it interferes with the absorption of calcium from food.
-It has long been known that the antiseizure medications used to control epilepsy speed up bone breakdown.
-Birth control pills reduce the folic acid content in the body.
-Certain medications for rheumatic disorders, allergic conditions and respiratory disease.
-Fluorides destroy collagen, the glue which adds strength to the bones.
-Blood thinners
-Antacids containing aluminum.

-Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) and the complete removal of the ovaries may also increase the risk of osteoporosis.
-Bariatric surgery helps people lose weight by restricting the amount of food they can eat. Research into this radical procedure, however, shows that it may interfere with bone formation. A full or partial removal of the stomach can result in osteoporosis, as your ability to digest and process nutrients essential for bone health becomes compromised.

Harmful Diets
-If pH (acid/alkaline) balance is correct, the minerals are balanced with each other, the endocrine glands secrete the right amount of hormones into the bloodstream. The body uses calcium because calcium is a base which neutralizes acids. It's this constant calcium leeching that eventually leads to osteoporosis and tooth decay. All vegetables, especially raw vegetables, balance the acidity and alkali levels in the blood.
-Consuming too much fat in our diets can contribute to osteoporosis as well. High animal fat content in modern dairy products lack of Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA).
-High intakes of protein also creates significant negative calcium balance.
-Saturated fats prevent calcium absorption, and saturated fats can form insoluble "soaps" that coat the intestines. Both of these effects on the body don't allow the necessary quantity of calcium to keep bones strong.
-Excess salt and sugar consumption leaches calcium from the bones into the urine.
-Colas and other carbonated soft drinks get their sharp taste from phosphoric acid, which contains phosphorus, a mineral that in excess amounts causes your body to excrete calcium.
-Three cups per day of coffee can increase the risk of osteoporosis by 82%.
-Avoid alcohol as it is a highly acidifying drink. Excess alcohol consumption interferes with calcium absorption.
-The evidence is overwhelming that smoking, particularly heavy smoking, boosts bone loss.

Healthy Diet in Osteoporosis
ANTIOXIDANTS are important in countering the harmful effects of free radicals generated as by-products of many metabolic processes in the body, as well as by exposure to environmental toxins and sunlight. Unless rendered harmless by antioxidants, free radicals damage cells by causing mutations in DNA and interfering with normal metabolism.
LACTOFERRIN can prevent or reverse osteoporosis without the dangerous side effects of bisphosphonate drugs. It has its highest content in mother's first milk from human breast feeding or colostrum (first milk) from cows. Supplements have also been created and are available on line and in some health food stores. Lactoferrin supplements are even approved by the FDA.
Consuming a handful of natural, DRIED PLUMS OR PRUNES every day will help prevent fractures and osteoporosis in the elderly. Figs, dates, raisins, and strawberries do not come anywhere close to having the effect on bone density that dried plums provide but are still bone helping
FLAXSEED OIL helps retain the calcium essential for strong bones.
A handful of SESAME SEEDS had every morning may also help osteoporosis.
Eating GRAPEFRUIT improves bone density.
A high SOY DIET has frequently been suggested as a way to prevent bone loss associated with aging. This is because soybeans are rich in plant estrogens called isoflavones.
SARDINES in oil (drained) with bones: One can (3.75 oz) provides 250 IU vitamin D, 351 mg calcium, 365 mg potassium and 35.9 mg magnesium.
TEMPEH: Just 4 ounces of this type of fermented soy and grain product can provide 108 mg calcium, 448 mg potassium and 87 mg magnesium. For a touch of added vitamin D, toss in 1 cup of stir-fried white mushrooms for 13 IU of the sunshine vitamin.
Cooked SPINACH: Just 1 cup of cooked spinach contains 245 mg calcium, 157 mg magnesium and 839 mg potassium. If you drizzle the spinach with olive oil, you’ll be getting additional bone-strengthening value. According to a new study conducted in elderly men, those who consumed a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil for two years had an increased level of osteocalcin in their blood. Osteocalcin is a known indicator of healthy bone. [4]
Baked SWEET POTATO: One large baked sweet potato, with skin, contains 1,600 mg potassium, 83.7 mg magnesium and 44.8 mg calcium. Break open the potato, stuff it with the cooked spinach, add a little olive oil and you have a great bone health combination.
ALMONDS: One ounce of dry roasted almonds contains 74.5 mg calcium and 80.1 mg magnesium.
BANANAS: One medium banana provides 422 mg potassium and 31.9 mg magnesium.
WALNUTS are high in beneficial omega-3 fatty acids, which are known to help prevent the type of bone loss that comes with aging. At the same time, the protein found in walnuts helps to build muscle, which is associated with stronger bones.
Suggested daily doses of bone-building nutrients are: calcium 1,000-1,500 mg, vitamin D at least 2,000 IU, magnesium 500-1,000 mg, vitamin C a minimum of 1,000 mg, ipriflavone 600 mg, vitamin K 45-300 mcg.

(Consult your Herbalist or a Naturopath Doctor before starting Herbal medications)
-OAT STRAW is calcium-rich and has been shown to heal osteoporosis, mend bones, improve cognitive performance, reduces anxiety and improves stimulation of the reproductive organs for both men and women. When oats are harvested before the grain matures, the green grass and tops are called oat straw (Avena sativa).In addition, oat straw encourages Healing broken bones, Easing muscle cramps, Strengthening blood vessels, Building tooth enamel, Protecting nerve sheaths, Restful sleep and contain a powerful vitamin B complex for sustained energy.
-BLACK COHOSH (Cimicifuga racemosa) contains phytoestrogens, which are substances that may help prevent loss of bone mass, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center.  REMIFEMIN is the trade name of this herbal supplement made in Germany. It consists of an extract of the roots and rhizomes of black cohosh which appears to be effective in treating certain conditions related to menopause. Remifemin, an over-the-counter product, may represent an alternative to hormone replacement therapy or HRT. The herb contains compounds such as triterpenes and plant estrogens, the combination of which seem to affect how your body regulates your hormones. Taking Remifemin does not appear to result in side effects common with the use of HRT, such as an increase in estrogen-related cancers. The supplement appears to be effective in preventing osteoporosis and improving symptoms such as the depression and anxiety some women suffer during menopause.
-FEVERFEW The chemical compounds in feverfew may help reduce bone pain, and may alleviate joint inflammation associated with osteoporosis
-RED CLOVER contains isoflavones, which are substances that may inhibit bone loss in women, according to UMMC.
-HORSETAIL contains silica, a mineral that may improve your body's absorption of calcium. This may help your body rebuild bone cells and slow the progression of osteoporosis. Studies show that taking calcium supplements can actually increase bone loss because without sufficient silica, the body cannot make use of the extra calcium. This extra calcium may even be dangerous to your health.
-GREEN TEA contains a group of chemicals that can stimulate bone formation and help slow its breakdown. Epigallocatechin (EGC)(this is the key one) and gallocatechin (GC), and gallocatechin gallate (GG) which have their multitude of health benefits.
-STINGING NETTLE contains Iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and protein which provide bones with many of the basic nutrients needed for strong bones and growth.
-ALFALFA provides calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and almost every other vitamin known
-FENNEL SEEDS show potential in preventing bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The fennel appeared to work by reducing osteoclast differentiation and function, thereby slightly decreasing bone turnover markers and offering a protective effect on the bones.
-OLIVE LEAF EXTRACT has phytochemicals oleuropein and hydroxytrosol. A recent study published in Osteoporosis International showed that concentrations of oleuropein stimulated the number and activity of osteoblast cells (the cells that are responsible for bone formation). Not only did the compound increase osteoblasts, but it also increased the expression of genes linked to osteoblast production.
-MANGOSTEEN a tropical fruit from Southeast Asia, has in recent years been promoted as a possible means to relieve bone and joint pain. Mangosteen has been used for its fruit and bark for hundreds of years. It is sold on the market as a juice, powder, tablet and capsule. Mangosteen is high in antioxidants, like lots of fruits and vegetables are.
-PAGODA TREE (Styphnolobium japonicum) contain genistein, a plant hormone that interacts with estrogen receptors in the body to produce effects similar to the natural hormone estrogen. Plants with genistein are effective in relieving many postmenopausal symptoms, including osteoporosis.
-WEDELIA (Wedelia calendulacea) contains isoflavones and wedelolactone, which have estrogenic actions and has a protective effect on bone density
-VELD GRAPE (Cissus quadrangularis) stimulates metabolism and increase the absorption of bone-building minerals like calcium.
-YUNNAN YEW (Taxus yunnanensis) Phytomedicine found that an extract of Yunnan yew bark, which contains a potent phytoestrogen known as isotaxiresinol, prevented bone loss and strengthened bone mass
-WOOLY TREE FERN contains Cibotium barmoetz (C. barmoetz) and several powerful phytochemicals. And these natural compounds could treat the bone-thinning.
-DANDELION TEA helps build bone density.
-RED CLOVER has been shown to improve bone mineral density (it also lowers LDL cholesterol).
-CHASTEE BERRY contains vitexicarpin and vitricin, which help to keep hormone levels in balance.
-DONG QUAI has been used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years for bone health.
-Other herbals for osteoporosis include chaste tree wild yam and lady's mantle.

Importance of Exercise in Osteoporosis
Exercise has an important impact on bone health. Several studies have increased awareness on how exercise can most constructively be used to prevent the development of osteoporosis. Bone density is sharply enhanced by weight training, even in the elderly.
The best exercise is the one you like and will continue doing, because if you don`t do it for life, the bone-building benefits fade. Exercise for at least thirty minutes using weight-bearing exercise such as walking or jogging, three times a week. This regime has been proven to increase bone mineral density, and reduce the risk of falls by strengthening the major muscle groups in the legs and back. You may prefer running, biking, swimming or aerobic dance classes. Aim for quality, not quantity, when you exercise.
Chest-Deep Water Walking for about 30 minutes at least three times a week is a suggested remedy, especially if you`ve already had a fracture or two, since the water will help support your body weight and take stress off bones and joints. Work yourself up to 30 minutes at least three times a week.
Jumping -- in which bone and muscle work against gravity -- encourages the body to increase bone mass between 2 percent and 8 eight percent per year, if you engage in high-impact activities at least three times a week for 30 to 60 minutes. You don't have to exercise 30 minutes in a row to increase bone mass. Three 10-minutes sessions of jumping rope can build bone density

TAI CHI reduces your risk of falling by as much as 50% and slows the rate of bone loss, and building bone mass and connective tissue and successful treatment for anxiety and depression, along with menopausal symptoms such as insomnia and hot flashes.
YOGA utilizes postures, breathing exercises, meditation and philosophy to balance the body, mind and spirit as well as enhance relaxation.
EARTHING (also called grounding) means reconnecting your body with the free electrons that flow through the Earth’s surface. It can be as simple, easy, and free as walking barefoot outdoors. Earthing has shown to support many health benifits including heart health, reducing stress…balancing the autonomic nervous system…and managing levels of cortisol (a stress hormone).

Hormonal Therapy Information 
(Note: Consult your physician before you start taking the hormonal therapy as your risk for hormone-sensitive cancers, such as prostate, breast, ovarian and uterine cancer, could be increased)
Bioidentical hormones help preserve bone as effectively as conventional hormones, but they're considerably safer and much better tolerated.
Dehydroepiandrosterone, or DHEA, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, or DHEAS, are biologically equivalent steroid hormones produced by your adrenal glands. DHEA can also be produced in the laboratory from plant sources. DHEA serves as the direct precursor for androgens, such as androstenedione and testosterone, and estrogens, such as estrone, estriol and estradiol. 
Testosterone increases BMD, it also improves muscle mass, energy, libido, and heart function.

Other TIPS
-Remove household hazards, such as throw rugs, to reduce the risk of falls.
-Leave lights on at night so you can see better when walking around your house.
-Install and use safety grab bars in the bathroom.
-Make sure your vision is good. Have your eyes checked once or twice a year by an eye doctor.
-Wear shoes that fit well with small heels. This includes slippers. Slippers that do not have heels can cause you to trip and fall.
-Do not walk outdoors alone on icy days.